Project Management in FocusApril, 2007
プロジェクトマネジメントの現場 日建設計 FACT NIKKEN SEKKEI51Many of the following technical and management-related terms that appear throughout the text are used within the real estate and construction industries, yet may be unfamiliar to many general readers.Asset managementActivities relating to the professional supervision and organization of property, capital, or any oth-er type of asset. Examples include procurement of funds for investment and transactions relating to various types of holdings.BCM (Business Continuity Management)The creation, implementation, and management of measures that allow business operations to continue or resume rapidly after interruption in the event of an unexpected disaster. Carefully planned BCM can help to establish client trust.BEMS (Building Energy Management System)A scheme for realizing optimal energy efciency and quality of interior environment through a comprehensive building management system. Technologically advanced forms of monitoring ensure that all aspects of a given structure (such as air conditioning, lighting, and security systems) function correctly at every stage.BriengA process for clarifying, documenting, and com-municating project requirements and customer goals prior to the commencement of a project. Major topics treated include overall purpose, baseline necessities, structural characteristics, and essential restrictions.Building commissioningA verication process used to ensure that a com-pleted structure and equipment systems are able to meet performance requirements. Interviews with designers and constructors, recommenda-tions, testing, documentation, and ongoing as-sessments are all used to ensure optimal levels of performance and efciency.Construction managementThe administration of various aspects of quality, process, and cost conducted by a client-appoint-ed agent during a construction project. Such supervision takes place throughout the entire project, with control relating to risk and account-ability being a central concern.Cost-on methodA procedure whereby three parties (client, princi-pal contractor, and subcontractor) work together to determine in writing the subcontractor’s construction fees and the principal contractor’s management fees. This method clarifies costs and eliminates ambiguities. Cost recordA form of documentation that tracks the history of construction changes and costs.Crisis managementA collective term for specific risk management methods used to ensure safety in the event of a disaster. These include crisis identication and analysis, determination of priorities and respons-es, and actual execution of measures to resolve the predicament at hand.Critical pathThe sequence of activities that determines the overall schedule of the project. Delays to such an activity or replacement thereof with another activity of shorter duration can increase or reduce the length of the overall project, respectively, thus making the critical path a crucial item for control in project management.Discounted cash ow methodAn approach used for calculating the future value of money that involves estimating projected cash ow using an appropriate discount rate.Due diligenceInvestigation and verication of factors that may affect prots, generally used here in reference to negotiation and risk-management activities relat-ed to the acquisition of real estate. During such activities, opinions concerning economic condi-tions, legal issues, and other relevant circum-stances are gathered from third-party specialists.Energy managementManagement regarding the development and implementation of energy-saving measures and systems.Life cycle managementA form of management used to realize optimum costs associated with a building from planning to demolition. Such management requires taking into account important nancial, social, and eco-logical issues.Living national treasureA title awarded in Japan to certain masters of tra-ditional crafts and performance traditions, with the aim of preserving skills and techniques that are in danger of being lost. Similar to the way in which special places or items of great cultural value are designated as national treasures, such individuals are considered to be "living treasures" eligible for special protection and support. Multi-trackA descriptive term used in situations in which multiple work processes (such as those relating to design, for example) are carried out simultane-ously. PDCA cycleA term standing for "Plan, Do, Check, Act" that indicates the order in which such processes should be undertaken as part of a quality control strategy. An approach based on the PDCA cycle is often used in management to continuously maintain and improve business operations and quality levels.Property managementTotal building management carried out on con-signment from investors, building owners, or asset managers. The scope of relevant activities varies among projects but usually includes daily building management and operation, leasing, and tenant relations.REIT (Real Estate Investment Trust)An investment vehicle that allows the purchase of real estate using funds collected from inves-tors. Investors hope to receive dividends gener-ated from lease income or prots from eventual sale.Risk managementThe process of identifying, analyzing, assessing, averting, and reducing any contingent risks that may have a negative impact on a project. Effec-tive implementation of risk management allows risks to be avoided without undue expense.Road mapA basic plan delineating the overall nature and progression of a project. It takes into account a variety of processes, such as studies for design and engineering, negotiations with public au-thorities, and the acquisition of necessary forms of approval.Securitization of real estateThe use of real estate acquired via a SPC (special purpose company) as collateral to borrow money from investors via issuance of securities. The pro-cess is typically employed by real estate invest-ment funds and private offering funds.Split ordering methodA special method whereby the client directly receives quotations from both the principle con-tractor and the subcontractor. This allows the cli-ent to conclude separate agreements with both such parties and thus to retain increased control over factors such as cost and quality.